Basic Principles Of Design Manfred Maier Pdf Download
while the layout of the inner pages was done by author manfred maier, the impressum credits another designer for the covers: wolfgang weingart (*1941), a basel school typographer from the generation after ruder/hofmann.
basic principles of design manfred maier pdf download
this course books were also translated into english and published by van nostrand reinhold, new york, under the title: "the foundation program at the school of design basel switzerland: basic principles of design".
According to Querin et al. (2017), TO methods can be divided into optimality criteria (OC) methods and heuristic-intuitive methods based on, e.g., evolutionary or genetic algorithms. The first group includes the Ground Structure Method (GSM), the Homogenization Method (HM), Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP), whereas the second group includes Evolutionary Structural Optimization (ESO) and Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization (BESO) amongst others. The OC methods are more generally referred to by Harzheim (2019) as mathematical respectively gradient-based TO methods, which are suitable for a relatively large number of design variables and only a limited number of constraints. On the other hand, according to Querin et al. (2017), heuristic-intuitive methods cannot always guarantee optimality, but can provide viable efficient solutions. Xia et al. follows a rougher classification and differentiates between GSM, ESO TO methods and density-based TO methods. Regarding evolutionary approaches, a separation between genetic algorithms representing zero-order methods and TO methods such as ESO and BESO should be made. It has to be kept in mind that transitions between the above-mentioned categorizations are fluid and dependent on the considered aspects, e.g. continuous versus discrete variables amongst others. Subsequently, the basic principles of frequently consulted TO methods, which serve for the understanding of this literature review, are briefly outlined.
In regard to investigations based on evolutionary procedures, the research of Liang et al. (2000) is started with. Within his literature piece the performance-based ESO method to automatically create ST models in reinforced concrete based on weight minimization criteria and displacement constraints is presented. Their findings indicate the method to be appropriate for finding truss models in continuum-like, non-flexural concrete members. Kwak and Noh also proposed ESO to determine ST models (2006), but instead of using the classical in-plane element a basic brick unit element consisting of six truss elements is designed. Unlike the classical ESO method this approach results in minimized strain energy for linear elastic material behavior. A further investigation specializes on an application to three-dimensional reinforced concrete structure (Leu et al. 2006). Lanes et al. (2019) used the ESO method by Liang et al. (1999) to create ST models based on linear as well as nonlinear material behavior of concrete, consulting the Concrete Damage Plasticity model provided by Abaqus (version 6.10). After considering the results of both material modeling approaches, a suggestion is made that the resulting topology with maximum stiffness is to be adapted for the subsequent truss layout. A more profound analysis of the differences between these two material modeling approaches is not given. 350c69d7ab